How can you tell that the qu' in "Qu'aimez-vous?" means que rather than qui? I.e., why isn't it "who do you like?" instead of "what do you like?"
Maarten and Jameson already explained that the "i" in qui never contracts. That's the reason you absolutely know that the first word in Qu'aimez-vous? must be que.
The next thing to keep in mind is the difference between qui/que as an interrogative pronoun (like in this sentence) and qui/que used as a relative pronoun.
Interrogative pronoun:qui -- used for people ("who")que -- used for objects ("what")
Qui vous aime ? -- Who loves you?Qui aimez-vous ? -- Whom do you love?Qu'aimez-vous ? -- What do you love?
Relative pronounqui -- used for people and objects as the subject of a relative clause ("who", "which", "that")que -- used for people and objects as the direct or indirect object of a relative clause ("whom", "which", "that")
Je ne sais pas qui est venu. -- I don't know who came.Je ne sais pas ce qui s'est passé. -- I don't know what happened.Je connais cette personne, que tu m'as montrée. -- I know that person whom you showed me.Je connais le livre que tu m'as montré. -- I know the book which you showed me.
Qui never contracts - see point towards end of lesson. Qui = Who/which/that (French Relative Pronouns)
Because QUI is never truncated. It is always QUI. So if you see qu'ils/qu'aimez IT IS alway QUE.
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