If you mean in the sentence :
Je n'ai pas assez de lait.
it is because of the 'pas' . (always pas ...de )
Hope this helps!
Whenever you relate to a specific quantity, you don't use the article and du/de la/des turns into de. And not having something, i.e., having zero of it, is also a specific quantity. Hence in negations you just use de.
J'ai du lait. -- I have milk. (no specific quantity, hence du)J'ai un peu de lait. -- I have a bit of milk. (un peu is a specification of quantity, hence de).Je n'ai pas de lait. -- I don't have milk. (no milk is also considered a quantity, hence de).
-- Chris (not a native speaker).
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