Pourquoi manque-t-il l’article au nom de Haïti ?
Although not universally true, it is not uncommon for islands/island ‘states’/principalities etc to not take a definite article in French. Just the way it is. The following list is not comprehensive, and Céline and Cécile have provided a list of some others in answer to a question on the link from this site below, (about 1 year ago and 2years ago respectively, to make finding it easier).
Using le, la, l', les with continents, countries & regions names (definite articles)
just to add to Maarten's answer, there is my answer to Gwynn which also includes Haïti.
Bonne Continuation !
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