Demonstrative adjectives specify a particular noun or group of nouns among a larger group.
Learn how to say this/these and that/those in French
In English, this and that (and these and those) have an associated proximity: this/these tend to be things nearer than that/those.
However, in French, on their own, ce/cet/cette can mean either this or that, and ces can mean either these or those - it just depends on context.
Look at these examples:
Cette is used with feminine singular nouns
Ces is used for all plural nouns (masculine and feminine)
Cases with masculine singular nouns
Ce is used with masculine singular nouns starting with a consonant; whereas cet is used with masculine singular nouns starting with a vowel or mute h
-> This is to make pronunciation easier!
Note that it doesn't apply to feminine nouns starting with a vowel or mute h, as cette doesn't pose any pronunciation issue!
See also Celui/celle/ceux/celles = the one(s) (French Demonstrative Pronouns) and Ce, cet, cette, ces + [durée] -là/-ci = that/those or this/these + [duration] (French Demonstrative Adjectives)
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