French Grammar Lessons

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Kwiziq French covers every conceivable grammar topic and rule across the French language! This section contains some of the most popular lessons in our system. You might also like to look at our French verb conjugation tables.

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Popular lessons

A0: Pronouns

Saying your name: Je m'appelle, Tu t'appelles, Vous vous appelez   

Tu and vous are used for three types of you   

A0: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Je becomes j' with verbs beginning with a vowel (elision)   

A0: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

J'habite à [city] = I live in [city]   

Je viens de + [city] = I'm from + [city]   

A0: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate être (je suis, tu es, vous êtes) in Le Présent (present tense)   

A0: Adjectives & Adverbs

Make most adjectives feminine by adding -e   

Nationalities differ depending on whether you're a man or a woman (adjectives)   

A0: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate avoir (j'ai, tu as, vous avez) in Le Présent (present tense)   

A0: Nouns & Articles

Using un, une to say "a" (indefinite articles)   

Job titles differ depending on whether you're a man or a woman (nouns)   

Don't use un, une when giving people's professions (zero article)   

A0: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir [nombre] ans = To be [number] years old   

A0: Numbers, Time & Date

Expressing dates in French   

A0: Questions & Interrogatives

Qu'est-ce que c'est... and Qu'est-ce que c'est que ça/cela ? = What is... / What's that?   

A0: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

C'est = It is   

Il y a = There is, There are   

A0: Nouns & Articles

Using le, la, l' to say "the" (definite articles)   

Plurals of the and a = les and des (articles)   

A0: Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives usually go AFTER nouns (adjective position)   

A0: Nouns & Articles

Most nouns take an -s in the plural unless they already end in -s, -x, -z   

A0: Adjectives & Adverbs

Make most adjectives plural by adding -s   

Short and common adjectives that go BEFORE nouns (adjective position)   

A0: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate aller (je vais, tu vas, vous allez) in Le Présent (present tense)   

A0: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir chaud / froid = To be hot / cold   

Je voudrais vs je veux   

Avoir faim / soif = To be hungry / thirsty   

A0: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate faire (je fais, tu fais, vous faites) in Le Présent (Present Tense)   

A1: Pronouns

Il, elle, ils, elles = it, he, she, they   

On = we, one, people   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate avoir in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Pronouns

Nous vs on (subject pronouns)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Replacing compound subjects with subject pronouns nous, vous, ils, elles   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Using du, de la, de l', des to express some or any (partitive articles)   

A1: Negative Words & Constructions

Using ne ... pas with simple tenses (negation)   

Un, une become de or d' in negative sentences (indefinite articles)   

Du, de la, de l', des all become de or d' in negative sentences (partitive articles)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate être in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Questions & Interrogatives

C'est quoi, Qu'est-ce que c'est ? = What's that?   

A1: Pronouns

C'est vs il/elle est: Saying it is   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Standalone adjectives after c'est are always masculine   

Colour descriptions change according to gender and number (adjectives)   

Adjectives ending with mute -e don't change in the feminine form   

A1: Pronouns

C'est, ce sont = this is, these are (demonstrative pronouns)   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Expressing possession with 'de'   

Mon, ma, mes; ton, ta, tes; son, sa, ses = my; your; his / her (possessive adjectives)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Using dans, sur, sous, devant, derrière, entre to say in, on top of, under, in front of, behind (prepositions)   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Notre, nos, votre, vos, leur, leurs = our, your, their (possessive adjectives)   

Forming the feminine of nouns and adjectives ending in -ien, -ion, -on   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

En vs dans with locations (prepositions)   

A1: Pronouns

Ça = that, this, it (pronoun)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Telling the time in French - simple   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Expressing timeliness (late, early, on time) - in general   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate aller in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Nouns & Articles

À + le = au, à + les = aux, de + le = du, de + les = des (contractions of articles)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

À côté de, en face de, à l'extérieur de, à l'intérieur de, près de, loin de, au coin de (prepositions)   

Pour + infinitive = In order to   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Continents, countries, regions & states are masculine, feminine or plural (gender)   

Using le, la, l', les with continents, countries & regions names (definite articles)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Using en with feminine countries and au(x) with masculine countries to say in or to (prepositions)   

En, dans = In, to with regions, states, counties (prepositions)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate venir, tenir and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Using 'à' (to/in) and 'de' (from/of) with cities (prepositions)   

Venir de, d', du, des + country / state / region = To come/be from   

Using à, en, par with means of transport (prepositions)   

Dans, sur with streets and transportation (prepositions)   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Talking about the weather with il fait   

Talking about the weather with il y a   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Prepositions with seasons: en, l', au   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -er verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Questions & Interrogatives

Asking yes/no questions with intonation, est-ce que, n'est-ce pas   

A1: Negative Words & Constructions

Using 'si' instead of 'oui' to disagree with a negative question or statement   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Using le, la, l', les before nouns when generalising (definite articles)   

Identifying gender by some word endings   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Using Le Présent where English uses Present Tense (current actions, habits and situations)   

Conjugate faire in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire de, jouer à : talking about leisure activities   

Jouer de = to play an instrument   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Using le with days of the week + weekend   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate vouloir in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives ending in -eux become -euse in the feminine form   

A1: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... jamais = Never (negation)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate pouvoir in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Expressing numbers 70 to 99   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives ending in -s or -x only change their feminine forms when plural   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate devoir in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Expressing large numbers: thousands, millions and billions   

A1: Questions & Interrogatives

Questions with qui, que, quoi, quand, où, comment, pourquoi, combien   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Ça m'est égal = I don't mind/care (idiomatic expressions)   

Expressing how you are with aller (greetings)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -ir verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Writing decimal numbers in French   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Using le, la, les with weights and measures (definite articles)   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir besoin de = To need   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Forming the plural of nouns ending in -au or -eau   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Neuf vs nouveau = New   

Beau, nouveau, vieux, fou, mou have two masculine forms and one feminine form   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire les courses vs faire les magasins   

A1: Pronouns

Moi, toi, lui, elle = me, you, him, her (stress pronouns)   

A1: Negative Words & Constructions

Non plus = neither / nor (negation)   

A1: Pronouns

Nous, vous, eux, elles = us, you, them (stress pronouns)   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Expressing possession with être à   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate croire in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Pronouns

Penser que, croire que = To think that, to believe that   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming regular adverbs with -ment   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate semi-regular -cer verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Using le, la, les with body parts and clothing (definite articles)   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir mal (à) = To be in pain, to hurt somewhere   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate semi-regular -ger verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

À + [heure] = At + [time]   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate reflexive verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate reflexive verb se réveiller in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate reflexive verb s'habiller in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate reflexive verb se coucher in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate reflexive verb se laver in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate reflexive verb s'amuser in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Telling the time in French - AM vs PM   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate -é(-)er, -e(-)er verbs in Le Présent (except -eter and -eler)   

Conjugate reflexive verb se lever in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Negative Words & Constructions

Using ne ... pas with reflexive verbs in simple tenses (negation)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate partir, sortir and other -tir verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Using 'sentir' to describe senses   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Using le, la, les with titles, languages and academic subjects (definite articles)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate -eter and -eler verbs in Le Présent - main rule (ll / tt)   

Conjugate prendre and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Using an/année, matin/matinée, jour/journée, soir/soirée : time unit vs duration   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Forming the plural of nouns ending in -al   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Using Le Présent for ongoing actions where English uses Present Continuous   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Être en train de : expressing ongoing actions in the present   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate dire and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Pronouns

Me, te, nous, vous = Me, you, us, you (direct and indirect object pronouns)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate dormir and other -mir verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the feminine of adjectives ending in -el, -eil, -il, -ul, -et, -s   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate écrire and inscrire in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Numbers, Time & Date

Forming ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, 10th...)   

Ordinal and cardinal numbers - differences between French and English usages   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Using Le Présent for immediate/near future actions   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Beau, nouveau, vieux have different plural forms for masculine and feminine (adjectives)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Aller + infinitive = to be going to (Le Futur Proche)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Chez = at someone's place (prepositions)   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate lire in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate reflexive verbs in Le Futur Proche (aller + infinitive)   

Venir de + infinitive = To have just done (Le Passé Proche)   

Conjugate mettre and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives ending in -er become -ère in the feminine   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Forming the plural of nouns ending in -eu   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Compound nouns formed with prepositions à, de, en   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir peur de = To be afraid/scared of   

A1: Pronouns

Tout le monde = Everybody (indefinite pronouns)   

A1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Compound nouns formed with noun + à + verb-infinitive   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate -eter and -eler verbs in Le Présent - exceptions in 'è'   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Ça y est = That's it, It's done   

Ça ne fait rien = It doesn't matter   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate reflexive verb s'asseoir in Le Présent (present tense)   

A1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Other adjectives that go BEFORE nouns   

A1: Nouns & Articles

Surnames don't pluralise   

A1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Être d'accord avec = to agree with   

A1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate boire in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Questions: Que ... = What ... ?   

A2: Pronouns

What are subjects, objects, and pronouns? (grammar point)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -dre verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Monter dans, descendre de = To get on, off transportation (prepositions)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Aimer = to love, like something / someone   

A2: Pronouns

Replacing nouns with le, la, l', les = it, him, her, them (direct object pronouns)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Common mistakes with mon/ma/mes, ton/ta/tes and son/sa/ses (possessive adjectives)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Translating the -ing form of verbs with L'Infinitif (not -ant)   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... pas du tout = Not at all (negation)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Using "mon" rather than "ma" with feminine nouns starting with a vowel or mute h (possessive adjectives)   

A2: Pronouns

Using 'trouver' to express 'to find' and opinions   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Bien, mal, mieux, moins, peu (irregular adverbs)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Using 'sentir bon' and 'se sentir bien'   

Avoir raison / tort / de la chance = To be right / wrong / lucky   

A2: Pronouns

Replacing people with lui, leur = him, her, them (indirect object pronouns)   

Position of object pronouns with verbs in simple tenses   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Using "plaire" to express liking something / someone   

A2: Pronouns

Position of object pronouns with infinitives   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Il faut : expressing necessity and obligation   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Questions: Quel, quels, quelle, quelles = Which / what ?   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Ce/cet/cette and ces = this/that and these/those (demonstrative adjectives)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Aller à = to suit someone (expressions with aller)   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... plus = No more, no longer (negation)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate semi-regular -oyer, -ayer, -uyer verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Pronouns

Tout, tous, toute, toutes = Everything, all (of them), the whole   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming adverbs from adjectives ending in a vowel   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Visiter vs rendre visite à = To visit a place vs a person   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions in Le Présent (except il, elle, on forms)   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... rien = Nothing (negation)   

Position of direct and indirect object pronouns with negation   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate savoir in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Position of most adverbs   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Se promener, promener, marcher, aller à pied = To walk   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... personne = No one, nobody (negation)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate connaître, paraître and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

Using nous, vous, ils/elles when conjugating verbs for multiple people   

A2: Pronouns

Using stress pronouns in compound subjects and objects (unlike English)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Manquer (à) = To miss someone/something emotionally   

Connaître vs savoir = to know something vs to know how to do   

A2: Pronouns

Expressing 'myself, etc...' with stress pronouns and 'même'   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

N'avoir plus de = To have none left (negation)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Using mon, ma, mes, etc with parts of the body (possessive adjectives)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Manquer (de) + thing = To miss / lack something   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Restrictive ne … que = only (simple tenses)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate voir and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the feminine of adjectives ending in -f   

Making comparisons with adjectives: plus... que, aussi... que, moins... que   

A2: Pronouns

Moi, toi, lui, elle, nous, vous, eux, elles (advanced stress pronouns)   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... pas non plus = Not ... either (negation)   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions in Le Présent with il, elle, on   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire exprès = To do something on purpose   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Questions: Qui, qui est-ce qui = Who ?   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate ouvrir, découvrir and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Pronouns

Quelqu'un, Quelqu'un d'autre = Someone, Someone else (indefinite pronouns)   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Questions: Qui / qui est-ce que = Whom ?   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Adjectives after personne, rien, tout le monde, quelqu'un are always masculine   

A2: Pronouns

Y = There (adverbial pronoun)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate suivre, vivre and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Pronouns

En with quantities = Of them (adverbial pronoun)   

A2: Numbers, Time & Date

Une dizaine = Ten or so (approximate numbers)   

A2: Pronouns

Autre chose / quelque chose d'autre = Something else (indefinite pronouns)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate servir and other -vir verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Pronouns

L'autre, les autres = The other one(s) (indefinite pronouns)   

Quelques, plusieurs, de nombreux = A few, several, many (quantities)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate recevoir and other -cevoir verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... aucun(e) = None (negation)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Making comparisons with adverbs: plus... que, aussi... que, moins... que   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... pas assez (de) = Not enough (of)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming adverbs from adjectives ending in -ant and -ent   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate conduire and other -uire verbs in Le Présent (present tense)   

Making comparisons with verbs: plus que, autant que, moins que   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... ni ... ni = Neither ... nor (negation)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

D'autres vs des autres = Others (indefinite adjectives)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular verbs in L'Impératif (imperative)   

A2: Pronouns

Me becomes moi in affirmative commands (L'Impératif)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the feminine of adjectives ending in -c   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Forming simple negative commands (L'Impératif)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire mal à vs faire du mal à = to hurt someone   

A2: Pronouns

Le, la, les vs lui, leur in affirmative commands (L'Impératif)   

Chacun, chacune, chaque = each, each one (indefinite adjectives and pronouns)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -er verbs (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Using 'depuis' (since / for) with Le Présent and NOT Le Passé Composé (prepositions of time)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Il y a + duration = Ago (expressions of time)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -ir verbs (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Using 'ne ... pas' with compound tenses (negation)   

A2: Numbers, Time & Date

Prochain / dernier = Next / last (durations)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Le Passé Composé is mostly used where English uses Simple Past   

Conjugate regular -dre verbs (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Pronouns

Position of object pronouns with verbs in compound tenses   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire peur (à) = To scare someone   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate faire (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire la queue = To queue [US: to be / stand in line]   

A2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

After / before versus in front of / behind (prepositions of time and place)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate avoir (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Position of adverbs with verbs in compound tenses   

A2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Expressing for + [duration] with either pendant, durant, depuis or pour (prepositions of time)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate être (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the feminine of faux and adjectives ending in -oux   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate coming and going verbs (+ être) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Agreeing past participle with subject's gender and number with (+ être) verbs in Le Passé Composé   

A2: Numbers, Time & Date

Saying 'from ... to ...' + dates and times   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Expressing timeliness (late, early) - precise   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate mourir, naître, décéder, devenir, rester (+ être) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Pronouns

Le/la même, les mêmes = The same (indefinite pronouns)   

A2: Nouns & Articles

Nouns that are plural in English but singular in French, and vice versa   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate reflexive verbs (+être) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Se souvenir de, se rappeler (de) = To remember   

A2: Pronouns

Ne ... pas grand-chose = Not much (negation)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate prendre and derivatives (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Rappeler (à quelqu'un) = to remind (someone)   

A2: Pronouns

Le mien, le tien, le sien, etc = Mine, yours, his/hers/its (possessive pronouns)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate voir, devoir, pouvoir, boire, croire, savoir, lire, taire (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

De plus en plus and de moins en moins = more and more and less and less (comparisons with adjectives, adverbs, verbs)   

Frais, long, favori, rigolo have irregular feminine forms (adjectives)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate mettre and derivatives (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

En vs dans (prepositions of time)   

A2: Pronouns

Le nôtre, le vôtre, le leur, etc = Ours, yours, theirs (possessive pronouns)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate ouvrir, découvrir and derivatives (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Pronouns

N'importe qui = Anyone (indefinite pronouns)   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Expressing possession with son, sa, ses and personne, tout le monde, chacun, il faut (possessive adjectives)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate recevoir and other -cevoir verbs (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Use notre/nos when on means we, but son/sa/ses when it means people (possessive adjectives)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire partie de = To be part of   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate -aindre, -eindre, -oindre verbs (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Nouns & Articles

De plus en plus de and de moins en moins de = more and more and less and less (comparisons of nouns)   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions with subject pronouns in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular verbs in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

Expressing continuing action in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir envie de = To feel like, want to   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Quel, quelle, quels, quelles + noun = What a ...   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate être in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Être en train de : expressing ongoing actions in the past   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Describing and expressing opinions in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

Conjugate semi-regular -cer verbs in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire confiance (à) = To trust   

A2: Nouns & Articles

Forming the plural of nouns ending in -ou   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate semi-regular -ger verbs in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

Expressing habits or repeated actions in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir l'habitude = To be in the habit of, to tend to   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate reflexive verbs in L'Imparfait (imperfect tense)   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions with names, things and emphasis   

A2: Nouns & Articles

Nouns that change meaning depending on whether they're masculine or feminine   

A2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Le plus and le moins = the most and the least (superlative of adverbs)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Demi, moitié, etc = Half   

A2: Pronouns

N'importe quoi = Nonsense, anything (indefinite pronouns)   

A2: Numbers, Time & Date

Doing arithmetic (numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

S'en aller = To leave   

A2: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne ... pas encore = Not yet   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions in Le Présent, special cases: puis-je, ai-je, suis-je   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate verbs in -aindre, -eindre, -oindre in Le Présent (present tense)   

A2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Devoir vs avoir besoin de to express "to need to"   

Avoir honte de = to be ashamed of   

A2: Questions & Interrogatives

Qu'est-ce qui + [verb] = What [does]...   

A2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate courir in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate rire and sourire in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate offrir and souffrir (+ avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate courir and derivatives (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate offrir et souffrir in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate suivre (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate vouloir (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate tenir and derivatives (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate dire (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate vivre (+avoir) in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate pouvoir in Le Conditionnel Présent = could (conditional mood)   

Conjugate devoir in Le Conditionnel Présent = should (conditional mood)   

Conjugate avoir in le Conditionnel Présent (conditional mood)   

Forming Le Gérondif: en + '-ant' (while/by + -ing)   

B1: Negative Words & Constructions

Aucun/e … ne = None of them (negation)   

Personne ne ..., rien ne ... = No one, nothing (negation)   

Ne ... nulle part = Nowhere (negation)   

Ni l'un(e) ni l'autre ne ... = Neither [one nor the other] (negation)   

Informal negation: omitting ne   

Restrictive ne … que = only (compound tenses)   

Using 'ne ... pas' with reflexive verbs in compound tenses (negation)   

B1: Nouns & Articles

Names for domestic animals are often different for male, female and baby   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Dernier = final / previous (adjectives that change meaning according to position)   

B1: Negative Words & Constructions

Position of negation with two verbs (conjugated + infinitive)   

B1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Using Le Passé Composé or Le Présent in negative sentences with ''depuis''   

Passer can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Passer, se passer, se passer de (different meanings of 'passer')   

B1: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions with nouns in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the feminine of adjectives ending in -u   

B1: Pronouns

Qui = Who, which, that (relative pronouns)   

Certain(e)s d'entre eux/elles = Some of them (indefinite pronouns)   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Ancien = former / old (adjectives that change meaning according to position)   

Cher= dear / expensive (adjectives that change meaning according to position)   

Certain = specific / sure (adjectives that change meaning according to position)   

Propre = own / clean (adjectives that change meaning according to position)   

Vrai = real / true (adjectives that change meaning according to position)   

B1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Expressing distance '(at) ... km from ...' = à ... de ... (prepositions)   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Better and better, worse and worse = de mieux en mieux, de pire en pire (comparisons)   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate être in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate faire in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate avoir in Le Futur (future tense)   

B1: Negative Words & Constructions

Using double and multiple negatives (negation)   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in Le Futur (future tense)   

Forming affirmative commands with reflexive verbs (L'Impératif)   

B1: Negative Words & Constructions

Forming negative commands with reflexive verbs (L'Impératif)   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Le, la, les plus and le, la, les moins = the most and the least (superlatives of adjectives)   

Meilleur, mieux, pire / plus mauvais, plus mal = better, best, worse and worst (irregular comparatives and superlatives)   

B1: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions with reflexive verbs in Le Présent   

B1: Pronouns

Using le or l' to refer to previously mentioned ideas (direct object pronoun)   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate courir in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate aller in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate vouloir in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate venir, tenir and derivatives in Le Futur (future tense)   

B1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Partir, laisser, quitter, sortir = To leave   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Using Le Futur after "quand" and "pendant que" instead of Le Présent   

B1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir un exam = To pass an exam   

Passer un exam vs to pass an exam   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular verbs in Le Conditionnel Présent (conditional mood)   

Conjugate être in Le Conditionnel Présent (conditional mood)   

Conjugate faire in Le Conditionnel Présent (conditional mood)   

Conjugate -dre and -re verbs in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate pouvoir in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate devoir in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate voir and envoyer in Le Futur (future tense)   

B1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Quelque chose de spécial = Something special   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Using Le Passé Composé on its own or with L'Imparfait   

Conjugate aller in Le Conditionnel Présent (conditional mood)   

B1: Negative Words & Constructions

Using object and stress pronouns in negative commands (L'Impératif)   

B1: Pronouns

Using "y" with affirmative commands (L'Impératif)   

Using "en" with affirmative commands (L'Impératif)   

B1: Questions & Interrogatives

Forming inverted questions with reflexive verbs in Le Passé Composé   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the plural of adjectives ending in -al   

Forming the plural of adjectives ending in -al (exceptions)   

Compound colour names and colour names derived from things are invariable   

Plus... plus..., moins... moins... = the more...the more..., the less...the less... (comparisons with phrases)   

Même can mean "same", "itself", "very", "exact" and "precise" as an adjective, and "even" as an adverb   

Supérieur à, inférieur à, intérieur à, extérieur à (irregular comparatives)   

Quelque(s) vs (un) peu de = A couple/a few vs a bit of/few (indefinite adjectives)   

Certain adverbs end in -ément   

B1: Pronouns

Replacing adjectives with le (direct object pronoun)   

Ce qui (vs ce que) = what, which (relative pronouns)   

En can replace de + phrase (adverbial pronoun)   

Y can replace à + thing / object / location (adverbial pronoun)   

Celui, celle, ceux, celles = the one(s) (demonstrative pronouns)   

Ce que (vs ce qui) = what, which (relative pronouns)   

Que = Whom, which, that (relative pronouns)   

B1: Adjectives & Adverbs

Chaque, tous les + [duration] = Each, every (indefinite adjectives)   

B1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faillir + infinitive = I almost did something   

B1: Pronouns

L'un(e) ... l'autre, les un(e)s ... les autres = One ... the other(s) (indefinite pronouns)   

B1: Numbers, Time & Date

Expressing fractions - general (numbers)   

B1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Using L'Imparfait in hypothetical clauses introduced by si (if) + Le Conditionnel Présent   

By + [point in time] = d'ici ...   

Avoir du mal à / avec = To have trouble, to struggle to / with   

B1: Nouns & Articles

Using ''de / d' '' instead of 'des' in front of adjectives preceding nouns (partitive article)   

B1: Numbers, Time & Date

Expressing dimensions and measurements (numbers)   

B1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Using prepositions with name days, like Saint Valentine's Day   

Using prepositions with celebration days, like Christmas   

B1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate recevoir and other -cevoir verbs in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate paraître, connaître and derivatives (+ avoir) - except apparaître and naître - in Le Passé Composé (conversational past)   

Conjugate savoir in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate mourir in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate valoir in Le Présent (present tense)   

Conjugate -éXer, -eXer, -eter, -eler verbs in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate semi-regular -oyer, -ayer, -uyer verbs in Le Futur (future tense)   

Conjugate regular -er, -ir, -dre verbs (+ avoir) in Le Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect tense)   

Conjugate être, avoir, faire, prendre (+ avoir) in Le Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect tense)   

B2: Pronouns

Reflexive + direct object (double pronouns)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate pouvoir in Le Conditionnel Passé = could have (past conditional)   

Conjugate devoir in Le Conditionnel Passé = should have (past conditional)   

B2: Nouns & Articles

Making comparisons with nouns: plus de... que, moins de... que, autant de... que   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate verbs (+ être) in Le Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect tense)   

J'allais + infinitive = I was going to (Le Futur Proche in the past)   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Avant de + infinitive = Before + -ing   

B2: Pronouns

Using direct and indirect object pronouns together (double object pronouns)   

Tout ce qui, tout ce que = All, everything that   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate être in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Conjugate avoir in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

B2: Pronouns

Où = where AND when (relative pronouns)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate aller in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Conjugate faire in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

B2: Pronouns

Dans lequel / laquelle : alternative to où with places (relative pronouns)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate prendre and derivatives in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Il faut que is always followed by Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Conjugate verbs with irregular past participles in Le Conditionnel Passé (past conditional)   

B2: Pronouns

Indirect object + en (double pronouns)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -er, -ir, -dre verbs (+ avoir) in Le Conditionnel Passé (past conditional)   

Descendre can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Monter can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Sortir can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Entrer can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Conjugate regular verbs in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

B2: Pronouns

Direct object + y (double pronouns)   

B2: Questions & Interrogatives

Comment ça se fait ? / Comment se fait-il que... ? = How come? / How is it that...?   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate verbs (+ être) in Le Conditionnel Passé (past conditional)   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Depuis que + verb = (ever) since + verb   

B2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Attendre quelqu'un vs s'attendre à quelque chose = to wait vs to expect   

B2: Numbers, Time & Date

When to use "demain"/"hier" vs "le lendemain"/"la veille" vs "le jour suivant"/"le jour précédent"   

B2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Faire + L'Infinitif = to have something done (causative)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate cueillir and derivatives in Le Présent (present tense)   

B2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Ainsi que = as well as, just as vs the way that   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Special cases when the past participle agrees (in number & gender) when used with 'avoir' in Le Passé Composé   

Retourner can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Rentrer can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Repasser can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Soit ... soit ... = Either ... or...   

Malgré, en dépit de = Despite, in spite of   

B2: Pronouns

Prepositions + qui, lequel, laquelle, etc : on what, behind whom, beside which (relative pronouns)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate venir, tenir and derivatives in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Conjugate pouvoir in Le Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect tense)   

Conjugate devoir in Le Plus-que-parfait (pluperfect tense)   

B2: Pronouns

À + qui, auquel, à laquelle = to whom, what, which (relative pronouns)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate reflexive verbs in Le Plus-que-Parfait (pluperfect tense)   

Conjugate vouloir in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Conjugate être, avoir, savoir in L'Impératif (imperative)   

B2: Pronouns

Using double object pronouns in affirmative commands (L'Impératif)   

B2: Negative Words & Constructions

Negating infinitives in indirect speech   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Vouloir que is always followed by Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Pour que (so that, in order that) is always followed by Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

B2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Ce, cet, cette, ces [duration] -là / -ci = that/those or this/these [duration] (demonstrative adjectives)   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Aimer que / détester que + Le Subjonctif = to like / hate that   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Dont = Including, of which   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate verbs in Le Subjonctif Passé (past subjunctive)   

B2: Pronouns

De + qui, duquel, de laquelle, dont = Of/about whom (relative pronouns)   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Dont = Whose   

Although = bien que + Le Subjonctif or même si + L'Indicatif   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate savoir in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Conjugate pouvoir in Le Subjonctif Présent (subjunctive mood)   

Il est (important) que + Le Subjonctif = It is (important) for (someone) to ...   

B2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Using Le Subjonctif after penser, trouver. savoir, croire, prétendre + que in the negative   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate avoir, être, faire and other irregular verbs in Le Futur Antérieur (future perfect)   

Conjugate regular -er, -ir, -dre verbs (+ avoir) in Le Futur Antérieur (future perfect)   

Conjugate vouloir, pouvoir, devoir in Le Futur Antérieur (future perfect)   

Conjugate verbs (+ être) in Le Futur antérieur (future perfect)   

B2: Adjectives & Adverbs

Forming the superlative of adjectives in complex cases   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate cueillir and derivatives in Le Futur (future tense)   

B2: Pronouns

Using reflexive pronouns to express 'each other'   

B2: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Recognising être in Le Passé Simple   

Recognising avoir in Le Passé Simple   

Recognising faire in Le Passé Simple   

Recognising all -er verbs Le Passé Simple (including aller)   

Recognising regular -ir verbs in Le Passé Simple   

Recognising voir and vivre in Le Passé Simple   

Recognising regular -dre verbs in Le Passé Simple   

Recognising venir, tenir and derivatives in Le Passé Simple   

B2: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Merci de / pour = Thank you for   

B2: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avoir besoin que + Le Subjonctif = To need [someone] to [do something]   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate haïr in Le Présent (present tense)   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Au cas où + Le Conditionnel = In case   

C1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Après que + L'Indicatif = After + verb   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Quand, lorsque, après que, une fois que + Le Futur Antérieur = 'when, after I've done in the future   

Forming La Voix Passive with simple tenses (passive voice)   

C1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Après avoir fait = After doing (auxiliary avoir)   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Demeurer can be used with avoir or être in Le Passé Composé... and changes meaning   

Agreeing past participle with 'on' (compound tenses)   

C1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Après être allé = After going (auxiliary être)   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Forming La Voix Passive with compound tenses (passive voice)   

Conjugate coudre in Le Présent (present tense)   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Jusqu'à ce que + Le Subjonctif = Until [someone] does [something]   

C1: Negative Words & Constructions

Understanding ne ... point (negation)   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Avant que + ne explétif + Le Subjonctif = Before I do   

Understanding the 'ne' explétif   

C1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Pour avoir fait = Cause for doing (simple expression)   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

De peur que + Le Subjonctif = For fear that   

C1: Prepositions & Conjunctions

Pour être allé = Cause for going (complex expression)   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Sans que (+ ne explétif) + Le Subjonctif = Without doing   

C1: Pronouns

Ceci, cela = this, that (demonstrative pronouns)   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate moudre in Le Présent (present tense)   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

À moins que + ne explétif + Le Subjonctif = Unless you do   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate all -er verbs in Le Passé simple (including aller)   

Conjugate être in Le Passé Simple   

Conjugate avoir in Le Passé Simple   

C1: Negative Words & Constructions

Ne … guère = Hardly   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -ir verbs in Le Passé Simple   

Conjugate faire in Le Passé Simple   

C1: Idioms, Idiomatic Usage, and Structures

Que + Le Subjonctif = Whether [one does something]   

C1: Verbs Tenses & Conjugation

Conjugate regular -dre verbs in Le Passé Simple   

Conjugate voir and vivre in Le Passé Simple   

Conjugate venir, tenir and derivatives in Le Passé Simple   

Conjugate conduire and other -uire verbs in Le Passé Simple   

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