Using du, de la, de l', des to express some or any (partitive articles)

Look at how to say some (or any in questions) in French: 

Tu veux du café?Do you want some coffee?

Je mets de la confiture sur ma tartine.I put (some) jam on my toast.

Tu as de l'argent?Do you have (any) money?

Tu veux des épinards ?Do you want some spinach?

Est-ce que tu as de la farine?Do you have any flour?

When things are countable (dogs, cars etc.) and you want to say some, you use des.
 
E.g.   Il y a des chiens.            
        There are some dogs.
        There are dogs.
 
Notice how in English you can omit the some: NOT in French! See Plurals of the and a = les and des (articles).
 
However, with uncountable things, we use du, de la, de l' to say some, as such:

Feminine noun la confiture de la
Je mange de la confiture.
(I eat some jam.)

Masculine noun le pain du

Il achète du pain.
(He buys some bread.)

Noun starting with a vowel
or mute h

l'huile de l'
Tu achètes de l'huile.
(You buy some oil.)

 

Note that some words can be both countable and not countable, for example chocolat, can mean chocolate (in general) or chocolates (individual sweets). Depending on which it is, use the correct article, like this:

J'ai des chocolats dans ma poche. (I have some chocolates in my pockets.)
Je veux du chocolat tout de suite. (I want some chocolate right now.) 
ATTENTION: partitive articles behave differently in negative sentences (ne...pas) See the related lesson: Du, de la, de l', des all become de or d' in negative sentences (partitive articles).
Grammar jargon: Names for uncountable things like milk are sometimes called mass nouns as well as uncountable nouns
Partitive articlesdu, de la, & de l' (some/any) are used with mass nouns. Definite articles (le, la, l', les) and indefinite articles (un/une/des) are used with countable nouns.

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Examples and resources

Tu as de l'argent?Do you have (any) money?
Je mets de la confiture sur ma tartine.I put (some) jam on my toast.
Tu veux des épinards ?Do you want some spinach?

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Est-ce que tu as de la farine?Do you have any flour?
Tu veux du café?Do you want some coffee?
Thinking...