Look at these examples:
Youpi ! J'ai eu ma licence !Yippee! I got my B.A.!
Et toi? - Non, je ne l'ai pas eu.And you? No, I didn't pass [it].
Mon frère a eu son bac.My brother passed his A-levels.
J'ai eu mon master en biologie il y a deux ans.I earned my Master's in Biology two years ago.
In French, to say that you passed an exam (meaning succeeded in it), or that you earned/obtained/got a degree, you can use the verb avoir and the name of the exam or degree.
Note that the bac or Baccalauréat is the compulsory exam that French students take at the end of high school, when they're 18, before going on to university for example. This exam, unlike British A-Levels, includes all the subjects studied up to then.
See also Differences between French and English usages - Passer un exam vs To pass an exam
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