Look at these sentences:

Elle passe le bac, mais elle n'est pas sûre de l'avoir.She's taking her A-levels, but she's not certain to pass them.

Et l'exam que tu as passé le mois dernier? - Hélas, je ne l'ai pas eu / je ne l'ai pas réussi!What about the exam you took last month? - Unfortunately, I didn't pass. (it)

J'ai passé le concours d'entrée, j'espère que je l'obtiendrai!I took the entrance examination , I hope I'll get it!

Passer un examen in French never means 'to pass an exam': it actually means 'to take an exam', with no implication of its outcome.

Note that you will never use "prendre" to say "to take an exam" !

To say that you passed an exam, you would use "réussir (à) un exam/ obtenir un exam / avoir un exam"

See also Avoir un exam = To pass an exam

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Examples and resources

Elle passe le bac, mais elle n'est pas sûre de l'avoir.She's taking her A-levels, but she's not certain to pass them.
Je passe mon permis de conduire demain.I´m taking my driving license test tomorrow.
Hier, mon fils a passé son examen.Yesterday, my son took his exam.
J'ai passé le concours d'entrée, j'espère que je l'obtiendrai!I took the entrance examination , I hope I'll get it!
Et l'exam que tu as passé le mois dernier? - Hélas, je ne l'ai pas eu / je ne l'ai pas réussi!What about the exam you took last month? - Unfortunately, I didn't pass. (it)
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