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Restrictive ne … que = only (simple tenses)

Look at these cases:

Nous n'avons qu'une heure
We only have one hour

Je n'ai que des pièces
I only have coins

Je n'aime que les pommes.
I like only apples.

Tu ne lis que le soir.
You read only in the evening.

Notice that to express restriction (only), we use the restrictive structure ne... que.

Though it looks similar to the ne ... pas (not) structure, there are some differences in the way to use it.

Note that ne is always placed in front of the verb.


However, as in English where you can move only in front of the element it's restricting, in French you will place que accordingly: 

Il ne mange que des pâtes le samedi.
He eats only pasta on Saturdays.

Il ne mange des pâtes que le samedi.
He eats pasta only on Saturdays.

The position of the word que can then subtly change the meaning of the sentence (just as the position of only can in English).

ATTENTION:
 
You CANNOT place que in front of the verb, so you CANNOT express He only eats pasta on Saturdays. 
This statement being ambiguous in English anyway, in French you would have to choose to insist on pasta or Saturdays.

 

Note:  You can also use seulement which means only in French, though it is not as elegant.

J'aime seulement les pommes.
I only like apples.I like only apples.

Tu lis seulement le soir.
You only read at night.You read only at night.

Il mange seulement des pâtes le samedi.
He only eats pasta on Saturdays.

 

See also the compound tenses cases Restrictive ne … que = only (compound tenses)

 

Learn more about these related French grammar topics

Examples and resources

J'aime seulement les pommes.
I only like apples.I like only apples.


Je n'aime que les pommes.
I like only apples.


Il ne mange des pâtes que le samedi.
He eats pasta only on Saturdays.


Je n'ai que des pièces
I only have coins


Il mange seulement des pâtes le samedi.
He only eats pasta on Saturdays.


Il ne mange que des pâtes le samedi.
He eats only pasta on Saturdays.


Il n'y a qu'une chambre libre dans l'hôtel
There is only one room free in hotel


Il mange des pâtes seulement le samedi.
He eats pasta only on Saturdays.


Ne parle pas de ton ex!A moins bien sûr, de n'en dire que du mal...et encore!
Don't talk about your ex!Unless of course, you only say bad things...and still!


Nous n'avons qu'une heure
We only have one hour


Tu lis seulement le soir.
You only read at night.You read only at night.


Tu ne lis que le soir.
You read only in the evening.


Q&A

Nev

Kwiziq community member

30 December 2017

3 replies

"I only have a book" vs "I only have one book"

Hi, I'm wondering about the difference between "I only have a book" and "I only have one book", which mean distinct things. It seemed to me that "Je n'ai qu'un livre" would be the former when I encountered it first. Is there anything that would differentiate the two English sentences? (No biggie, just wondering.)

Jim

Kwiziq community member

30 December 2017

30/12/17

Je n'en ai que un. I suggest that this would explain that "you only have one book" provided the context of what was being discussed mentioned books.
I agree that Je n'ai qu'un livre, translates to "I only have a book"
Hope this helps.
Alan (Jim)

Nev

Kwiziq community member

31 December 2017

31/12/17

Cheers. :)

Aurélie

Kwiziq language super star

2 January 2018

2/01/18

Bonjour Nev !


That's an interesting question :)


Je n'ai qu'un livre would be the neutral equivalent to I only have a/one book when there's no emphasis on "one".


However, if you wanted to insist on the fact that you have "only one", in French you would use the adjective seul, as such:


Je n'ai qu'un seul livre.  (Literally: I only have one book alone.

Bonne journée !

Judy

Kwiziq community member

19 April 2017

6 replies

Regarding the 3 examples using "seulement"

Why isn't the translation for the "il mange seulement des pates le samedi, translated "He eats only" as in the first 2 examples since seulement is an adverb which is usually translated "He only eats:...

Ron

Kwiziq community member

20 April 2017

20/04/17





Note: You can also use seulement which means only in French, though it is not as elegant.
J'aime seulement les pommes.
I only like apples.I like only apples.
Tu lis seulement le soir.
You only read at night.You read only at night.
Il mange seulement des pâtes le samedi.
He eats only pasta on Saturdays.
Try looking at this example rephrased:
Le samedi il mange seulement des pâtes. this then becomes a statement of his habit on Saturday which is to eat pasta.

Hope this helps.

Judy

Kwiziq community member

21 April 2017

21/04/17

So if I translate "Il mange seulement des pates le samedi" as "He only eats pasta on Saturdays" we will both be happy! :)

If you wanted to, you could change the example to translate: "He only eats pasta on Saturdays."

Aurélie

Kwiziq language super star

22 April 2017

22/04/17

Bonjour Judy !

This is actually an interesting difference between French and English:
indeed, in English you would use intonation to stress which element of the sentence is being restricted by "only", whereas in French we move "seulement" or "que" directly in front of the restricted element. Here we tried to show this nuance by moving "only" accordingly:
"Il mange seulement des pâtes le samedi." (He only eats PASTA on Saturdays.)
"Il mange des pâtes seulement le samedi." (He only eats pasta ON SATURDAYS.)

I hope that helps!
À bientôt !

Ron

Kwiziq community member

23 April 2017

23/04/17

Merci, Aurélie. C'est très clair.

Judy

Kwiziq community member

24 April 2017

24/04/17

Merci for all your help. I didn't make myself clear on the question. I was asking about the english translation of the 3rd "seulement" example. Aurelie has now made it clear in the example she gives above-- "Il mange seulement des pâtes le samedi." (He only eats PASTA on Saturdays.)
"He only eats" is what I would expect after reading the first two english translations. Will you be changing it?

Aurélie

Kwiziq language super star

28 April 2017

28/04/17

Bonjour Judy !

I've now changed the English in the 3rd example :)

Bonne journée !

Judy

Kwiziq community member

19 April 2017

1 reply

Regarding the 3 examples using "seulement" in this exercise:

Ron

Kwiziq community member

20 April 2017

20/04/17

Il n'y a pas de question.

Jennifer

Kwiziq community member

14 December 2016

3 replies

Elles (les chauve-souris) ne volent que la nuit

I look for a proposition like à or dans la nuit. Have you any general tips on why and where french does not need a preposition in cases like this?

Aurélie

Kwiziq language super star

15 December 2016

15/12/16

Bonjour Jennifer !

With moments of the day, you will usually use only the definite article "l'/le/la" to express a general statement:
"Le soir, je me couche tard." (In the evening, I go to bed late.)
"L'après-midi, il fait la sieste." (In the afternoon, he has a nap.)
"La nuit, nous dormons." (At night, we sleep.)

See also our lesson on days of the week:
https://progress.lawlessfrench.com/revision/grammar/when-to-use-le-with-days-of-the-week-weekend

I hope that's helpful!
À bientôt !

Jennifer

Kwiziq community member

15 December 2016

15/12/16

Merci Aurélie,

Prepositions one of my bêtes noires. I read your lessons but difficult to keep them in mind. Thank you again.

Aurélie

Kwiziq language super star

15 December 2016

15/12/16

Courage Jennifer !

"C'est en forgeant que l'on devient forgeron !"
(Literally: It's by forging that you become a blacksmith.)
-> Practice makes perfect.
:)

Kathy

Kwiziq community member

25 August 2016

2 replies

Des pommes ?

Hi there, another question from me about articles. In the example above, "J'aime seulement les pommes", does this not refer to "the apples" versus apples in general. I thought one would use "des pommes" in this case. Merci, Kathy

Laura

Kwiziq language super star

25 August 2016

25/08/16

Bonjour Kathy,

Good question! That's the tricky thing about the French definite article - it is both specific (I like the apples you bought yesterday) and general (I like apples). Des pommes would refer to only some apples, like Granny Smiths but not Macintosh.

Take a look at these lessons:

https://progress.lawlessfrench.com/my-languages/french/view/1
https://progress.lawlessfrench.com/my-languages/french/view/11

Kathy

Kwiziq community member

25 August 2016

25/08/16

Merci beaucoup, Laura !

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