The verb manquer is often troublesome for English speakers of French because its structure is reversed when it applies to emotions as opposed to events or things.
Manquer [quelque chose] = to miss [something], to fail to attend/catch
Ton père ne veut pas manquer ta remise de diplôme.Your father doesn't want to miss your graduation.
Jacques a manqué son train.Jacques missed his train.
Vite ! On va manquer le début du concert !Quick! We're going to miss the beginning of the concert!
Avec ses yeux de lynx, ma prof ne manque rien.With her eagle eyes, my teacher doesn't miss anything.
To express missing as in failing to attend or catch something (e.g., an event, a train ...), you use:
manquer + [event/means of transport/place...]
In French, you can also use the verb rater in this specific context, though it's a bit more familiar than manquer.
Jacques a raté son train.Jacques missed his train.
Manquer de [quelque chose] = to lack [something]
Je manque de sucre pour faire ce gâteau.I need [lit: lack] sugar to make that cake.
Il manque toujours de courage.He always lacks courage.
Je manque d'argent pour payer mes factures.I don't have enough money to pay my bills.
J'ai eu une enfance heureuse, je n'ai manqué de rien.I had a happy childhood, I wanted for nothing (lit. I lacked nothing).
To express lacking [something], you use:
manquer de or d' + [thing]
As you're literally saying I lack of [something], you never use partitive articles (du, de l', de la, des) here; i.e., Je manque du sucre.
Il manque [quelque chose] à [quelqu'un/quelque chose] = [Someone/something] is missing (i.e., lacking) [something]
Il manque un bouton à ta chemise.Your shirt is missing a button.
Il me manque deux euros pour pouvoir l'acheter.I need two more euros to be able to buy it. (Literally: I'm missing two euros...)
Il manquait juste une demoiselle d'honneur à notre mariée.Our bride was just missing a bridesmaid.
Il va manquer une chaise pour ton oncle.We/They/You're going to need [lit: lack] a chair for your uncle.
-> Note here that no "lacker" is mentioned, making this a general statement, a bit like with il faut
There is also an impersonal structure to express something missing/lacking to someone or something, which works as follows:
Impersonal il + manquer + [lacked thing] + à + [person or thing that lacks]
Impersonal il + [object pronoun "lacker"] + manquer + [lacked thing]
in any of the above ways to express missing a person (or thing) emotionally
See Using manquer (à) to say you miss someone or something emotionally in French
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