In French, to express "without doing [something]", you use "sans que" + Le Passé Composé (Indicatif). Sometimes, you also use Ne explétif.
How to use "sans que" with the ne explétif and with Mode subjonctif in French
Look at these sentences:
To express without <someone's> + -ing verb (= without you doing) in French, you use:
With sans que, the use of the ne explétif is quite tricky, so look at these guidelines:
- If the main verb is NOT used with negations, then you CANNOT use the ne explétif.
- If the main verb is used with a negation, you can use the ne explétif, but it is considered optional:
When to use Le Subjonctif Présent or Le Subjonctif Passé ?
When the main clause is itself in a past tense, then the question is whether the action after sans que is over at the time of the main clause or not:
-> literally "He came without you having known."
See What is the ne explétif and when to use it in French
as well as other similar subordinating conjunctions:
Sans que (+ ne explétif) + the subjunctive mood (Le Subjonctif) = Without doing in French
À moins que + ne explétif + the subjunctive mood (Le Subjonctif) = Unless you do in French
Avant que + ne explétif + the subjunctive mood (Le Subjonctif) = Before I do in French
De peur que + ne explétif + the subjunctive mood (Le Subjonctif) = for fear that in French
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